This is a reference calculation page for every time a character creates a storm. A plethora of different variables, methods, and tables will be used to show results.

Table of Storms Using CAPE and Distance to Horizon

The assumptions that will remain steady throughout all of the results:

  • The storm is cylindrical in shape
  • Independent of how high it floats off the ground, the storm mass itself 30,000 ft tall, going by this
  • The distance to the horizon is the radius of the storm

The variables that will change:

  • Observer Height, and thus, distance to the horizon
  • Assumed Instability in Kilojoules

Using this thread as a reference, my alternatives for instability will be as follows:

  • 1 Kj/kg, - "weak instability"
  • 2.5 Kj/kg - "moderate instability"
  • 4 Kj/kg - "strong instability"
  • 5.89 Kj/kg - 1999 Oklahoma Tornado Outbreak
  • 8 Kj/kg - 1990 Plainfield Tornado

Using various google searches, I will use the following heights, which I will convert to horizon distance via this calculator:

I will use the following formula to find the cloud's volume:

V = pi * radius^2 * height


Volume = pi * Distance to horizon (in meters)^2 * 13,000 m

After that I will apply cloud density by multiplying the result by 1.003 (kilograms per cubic meter), then I'll multiply the resulting mass by the CAPE in joules per kilogram.

So the whole extended formula would be as follows:

((pi * Horizon distance (in meters)^2 * 13,000 m) * 1.003) * CAPE (In j/kg)

CAPE will be switched out for 1000 j/kg, 2500 j/kg, 4000 j/kg, 5890 j/kg, and 8000 j/kg for different ends

Table of results

The top row is the observation height that was converted to horizon distance used to get the result.

The far left column is the Instability used to get the result.

Human Height Two-Story Building Rand McNally Building Skyscraper Burj Khalifa Mountain Cloud height
1 Kj/kg 9e+14 j 3.17e+15 j 2.35e+16 j 5.22e+16 j 4.3e+17 j 1.31e+18 3.13e+18 j
2.5 Kj/kg 2.26e+15 j 7.93e+15 j 5.89e+16 j 1.3e+17 j 1.1e+18 j 3.27e+18 7.84e+18 j
4 Kj/kg 3.61e+15 j 1.27e+16 j 9.43e+16 j 2.1e+17 j 1.73e+18 j 5.23e+18 j 1.25e+19 j
5.89 Kj/kg 5.32e+15 j 1.87e+16 j 1.4e+17 j 3.1e+17 j 2.55e+18 j 7.69e+18 j 1.85e+19 j
8 Kj/kg 7.23e+15 j 2.53e+16 j 1.9e+17 j 4.2e+17 j 3.5e+18 j 1.05e+19 j 2.51e+19 j

Table of Results using CAPE and Different Real-Life Examples

For this Table I will use the areas of different countries, continents, oceans, etc. and multiply it by 13,000 meters to get the volume, then I will use cloud density to find the mass and use CAPE multipliers to get AP values from the storm cloud's mass.


  • The storm covers the entirety of the country/continent/island/ocean/etc. or an area equivalent to its total area and nothing else.

That's about it.

I will use the following formula:

(Area of country in m^2 * 13,000) * 1.003 * CAPE

CAPE will be switched out for 1000 j/kg, 2500 j/kg, 4000 j/kg, 5890 j/kg, and 8000 j/kg for different ends

Areas that will be used:

  • Vatican City - 440 m^2
  • Malta - 316,000 m^2
  • New York City - 788,910 m^2
  • Rhode Island - 4,002,000 m^2
  • Hawaii - 28,311,000 m^2
  • Japan - 377,962,000 m^2
  • California - 423,970,694 m^2
  • Texas - 695,621,000 m^2
  • Alaska - 1,717,854,000 m^2
  • Brazil - 8,515,880,907 m^2
  • Arctic Ocean - 13,985,935,800 m^2
  • India Ocean - 70,551,276,126 m^2
  • Pacific Ocean - 152,809,298,510 m^2
  • All of the earth's oceans - 360,000,000,000 m^2
  • Surface area of the entire earth - 509,968,658,925 m^2

Table of Results

Vatican City Malta New York City Rhode Island Hawaii Japan California Texas Alaska Brazil Arctic Ocean Indian Ocean Pacific Ocean Total Oceanic Area Earth's Entire Surface
1 Kj/kg 5.2e+8 j 4.12e+12 j 1.03e+13 j 5.22e+13 j 3.69e+14 j 4.93e+15 j 5.52e+15 j 9.07e+15 j 2.24e+16 j 1.11e+17 j 1.82e+17 j 9.2e+17 j 1.992e+18 j 4.7e+18 j 6.65e+18 j
2.5 Kj/kg 1.43e+10 j 1.03e+13 j 2.57e+13 j 1.3e+14 j 9.22e+14 j 1.23e+16 j 1.38e+16 j 2.26e+16 j 5.59e+16 j 2.77e+17 j 4.56e+17 j 2.29e+18 j 4.98e+18 j 1.17e+19 j 1.66e+19 j
4 Kj/kg 2.29e+10 j 1.65e+13 j 4.11e+13 j 2.1e+14 j 9.22e+14 j 1.97e+16 j 2.2e+16 j 3.62e+16 j 8.95e+16 j 4.44e+17 j 7.39e+17 j 3.68e+18 j 7.96e+18 j 1.87e+19 j 2.65e+19 j
5.89 Kj/kg 3.37e+10 j 2.42e+13 6.05e+13 j 3.07e+14 j 2.17e+15 j 2.9e+16 j 3.25e+16 j 5.34e+16 j 1.32e+16 j 6.54e+17 j 1.07e+18 j 5.41e+18 j 1.17e+19 j 2.76e+19 3.92e+19 j
8 Kj/kg 4.58e+10 j 3.3e+13 8.22e+13 j 4.17e+14 j 2.95e+15 j 3.94e+16 j 4.42e+16 j 7.25e+16 j 1.79e+16 j 8.88e+17 j 1.45e+18 j 7.36e+18 j 1.59e+19 j 3.75e+19 5.31e+19 j