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This is a reference calculation page for every time a character creates a storm, as opposed to just moving it from somewhere else. A plethora of different variables, methods, and tables will be used to show results.

Table of Storms Using CAPE and Distance to Horizon

The assumptions that will remain steady throughout all of the results:

  • The storm is cylindrical in shape
  • The clouds of the storms are cumulonimbus clouds and hence about 8000m to 11800m tall
  • The distance to the horizon is the radius of the storm
    • This also means that the storm must reach the horizon in order for any of the values on the following table to apply

The variables that will change:

  • Observer Height, and thus, distance to the horizon
  • Assumed Instability in Kilojoules

Using this thread as a reference, our alternatives for instability will be as follows:

  • 1 Kj/kg, - "weak instability"
  • 2.5 Kj/kg - "moderate instability"
  • 4 Kj/kg - "strong instability"
  • 5.89 Kj/kg - 1999 Oklahoma Tornado Outbreak
  • 8 Kj/kg - 1990 Plainfield Tornado

Using various google searches, we will use the following heights, which will then be converted to horizon distance via this calculator:

We'll use the following formula to find the cloud's volume:

V = pi * radius^2 * height

Or...

Volume = pi * Distance to horizon (in meters)^2 * (8000m or 11800m)

After that we'll apply cloud density by multiplying the result by 1.003 (kilograms per cubic meter), then multiply the resulting mass by the CAPE in joules per kilogram.

So the whole extended formula would be as follows:

((pi * Horizon distance (in meters)^2 * (8000m or 11800m)) * 1.003) * CAPE (In j/kg)

CAPE will be switched out for 1000 j/kg, 2500 j/kg, 4000 j/kg, 5890 j/kg, and 8000 j/kg for different ends

Table of results

The top row is the observation height that was converted to horizon distance used to get the result.

The far left column is the Instability used to get the result.

Human Height Two-Story Building Rand McNally Building Skyscraper Burj Khalifa Mountain Cloud height
1 Kj/kg 5.53846E+14J to 8.16923E+14J 1.95077E+15J to 2.87738E+15J 1.44615E+16J to 2.13308E+16J 3.21231E+16J to 4.73815E+16J 2.64615E+17J to 3.90308E+17J 8.06154E+17J to 1.18908E+18J 1.92615E+18J to 2.84108E+18J
2.5 Kj/kg 1.39077E+15J to 2.05138E+15J 4.88E+15J to 7.198E+15J 3.62462E+16J to 5.34631E+16J 8E+16J to 1.18E+17J 6.76923E+17J to 9.98462E+17J 2.01231E+18J to 2.96815E+18J 4.82462E+18J to 7.11631E+18J
4 Kj/kg 2.22154E+15J to 3.27677E+15J 7.81538E+15J to 1.15277E+16J 5.80308E+16J to 8.55954E+16J 1.29231E+17J to 1.90615E+17J 1.06462E+18J to 1.57031E+18J 3.21846E+18J to 4.74723E+18J 7.69231E+18J to 1.13462E+19J
5.89 Kj/kg 3.27385E+15J to 4.82892E+15J 1.15077E+16J to 1.69738E+16J 8.61538E+16J to 1.27077E+17J 1.90769E+17J to 2.81385E+17J 1.56923E+18J to 2.31462E+18J 4.73231E+18J to 6.98015E+18J 1.13846E+19J to 1.67923E+19J
8 Kj/kg 4.44923E+15J to 6.56262E+15J 1.55692E+16J to 2.29646E+16J 1.16923E+17J to 1.72462E+17J 2.58462E+17J to 3.81231E+17J 2.15385E+18J to 3.17692E+18J 6.46154E+18J to 9.53077E+18J 1.54462E+19J to 2.27831E+19J

Table of Results using CAPE and Different Real-Life Examples

The values of this table are obtained form using the areas of different countries, continents, oceans, etc., multiplying it by 8000 to 11800 meters to get the volume, using cloud density to find the mass and using CAPE multipliers to get AP values from the storm cloud's mass.

Assumptions:

  • The storm covers the entirety of the country/continent/island/ocean/etc. or an area equivalent to its total area and nothing else.

That's about it.

The following formula is used:

(Area of country in m^2 * (8000m or 11800m)) * 1.003 * CAPE

CAPE will be switched out for 1000 j/kg, 2500 j/kg, 4000 j/kg, 5890 j/kg, and 8000 j/kg for different ends.

Vatican City - 440,000 m^2

1000 j/kg 2500 j/kg 4000 j/kg 5890 j/kg 8000 j/kg
8000 m 3.53056e+12 J 8.8264e+12 J 1.412224e+13 J 2.0794998e+13 J 2.824448e+13 J
11800 m 5.207576e+12 J 1.301894e+13 J 2.0830304e+13 J 3.0672623e+13 J 4.1660608e+13 J

Malta - 316,000,000 m^2

1000 j/kg 2500 j/kg 4000 j/kg 5890 j/kg 8000 j/kg
8000 m 2.535584e+15 J 6.33896e+15 J 1.0142336e+16 J 1.493459e+16 J 2.0284672e+16 J
11800 m 3.7399864e+15 J 9.349966e+15 J 1.4959946e+16 J 2.202852e+16 J 2.9919891e+16 J

New York City - 783,800,000 m^2

1000 j/kg 2500 j/kg 4000 j/kg 5890 j/kg 8000 j/kg
8000 m 6.2892112e+15 J 1.5723028e+16 J 2.5156845e+16 J 3.7043454e+16 J 5.031369e+16 J
11800 m 9.2765865e+15 J 2.3191466e+16 J 3.7106346e+16 J 5.4639095e+16 J 7.4212692e+16 J

Rhode Island - 4,002,000,000 m^2

1000 j/kg 2500 j/kg 4000 j/kg 5890 j/kg 8000 j/kg
8000 m 3.2112048e+16 J 8.028012e+16 J 6.4032e+13 J 1.2844819e+17 J 2.5689638e+17 J
11800 m 4.7365271e+16 J 1.1841318e+17 J 1.8946108e+17 J 2.7898144e+17 J 3.7892217e+17 J

Hawaii - 28,311,000,000 m^2

1000 j/kg 2500 j/kg 4000 j/kg 5890 j/kg 8000 j/kg
8000 m 2.2716746e+17 J 5.6791866e+17 J 9.0866986e+17 J 1.3380164e+18 J 1.8173397e+18 J
11800 m 3.3507201e+17 J 8.3768002e+17 J 1.340288e+18 J 1.9735741e+18 J 2.6805761e+18 J

Japan - 377,930,000,000 m^2

1000 j/kg 2500 j/kg 4000 j/kg 5890 j/kg 8000 j/kg
8000 m 3.0325103e+18 J 7.5812758e+18 J 1.2130041e+19 J 1.7861486e+19 J 2.4260083e+19 J
11800 m 4.4729527e+18 J 1.1182382e+19 J 1.7891811e+19 J 2.6345691e+19 J 3.5783622e+19 J

California - 423,970,694,000 m^2

1000 j/kg 2500 j/kg 4000 j/kg 5890 j/kg 8000 j/kg
8000 m 3.4019409e+18 J 8.504852e+18 J 1.3607763e+19 J 2.003743e+19 J 2.7215522e+19 J
11800 m 5.0178628e+18 J 1.2544657e+19 J 2.0071434e+19 J 2.95552e+19 J 4.0142888e+19 J

Texas - 695,621,000,000 m^2

1000 j/kg 2500 j/kg 4000 j/kg 5890 j/kg 8000 j/kg
8000 m 5.5816629e+18 J 1.3954157e+19 J 2.2326652e+19 J 3.2875995e+19 J 4.4653303e+19 J
11800 m 8.232951e+18 J 2.0582382e+19 J 3.2931812e+19 J 4.8492091e+19 J 6.5863622e+19 J

Alaska - 1,717,854,000,000 m^2

1000 j/kg 2500 j/kg 4000 j/kg 5890 j/kg 8000 j/kg
8000 m 1.378406e+19 J 3.4460151e+19 J 5.5136242e+19 J 8.1188116e+19 J 1.1027248e+20 J
11800 m 2.0331472e+19 J 5.082871e+19 J 8.1325956e+19 J 1.1975247e+20 J 1.6265191e+20 J

Brazil - 8,515,767,000,000 m^2

1000 j/kg 2500 j/kg 4000 j/kg 5890 j/kg 8000 j/kg
8000 m 6.8330514e+19 J 1.7082629e+20 J 2.7332205e+20 J 4.0246673e+20 J 5.4664403e+20 J
11800 m 1.0078751e+20 J 2.5196865e+20 J 4.0315003e+20 J 5.9363843e+20 J 8.0630007e+20 J

Arctic Ocean - 13,985,935,800,000 m^2

1000 j/kg 2500 j/kg 4000 j/kg 5890 j/kg 8000 j/kg
8000 m 1.1222314e+20 J 2.8055788e+20 J 4.4889259e+20 J 6.6099435e+20 J 8.977851e+20 J
11800 m 1.6552914e+20 J 4.1382286e+20 J 6.6211657e+20 J 9.7496665e+20 J 1.324233e+21 J

India Ocean - 70,551,276,126,000 m^2

1000 j/kg 2500 j/kg 4000 j/kg 5890 j/kg 8000 j/kg
8000 m 5.6610343e+20 J 1.4152586e+21 J 2.2644137e+21 J 3.3343491e+21 J 4.5288274e+21 J
11800 m 8.3500251e+20 J 2.0875064e+21 J 3.3400103e+21 J 4.9181644e+21 J 6.6800205e+21 J

Pacific Ocean - 152,809,298,510,000 m^2

1000 j/kg 2500 j/kg 4000 j/kg 5890 j/kg 8000 j/kg
8000 m 1.2261418e+21 J 3.0653546e+21 J 4.9045673e+21 J 7.2219751e+21 J 9.8091346e+21 J
11800 m 1.8085592e+21 J 4.5213976e+21 J 7.2342366e+21 J 1.0652414e+22 J 1.4468473e+22 J

All of the earth's oceans - 360,000,000,000,000 m^2

1000 j/kg 2500 j/kg 4000 j/kg 5890 j/kg 8000 j/kg
8000 m 2.88864e+21 J 7.2216e+21 J 1.155456e+22 J 1.701409e+22 J 2.310912e+22 J
11800 m 4.260744e+21 J 1.065186e+22 J 1.7042976e+22 J 2.5095782e+22 J 3.4085952e+22 J

Surface area of the entire Earth - 509,968,658,925,000 m^2

1000 j/kg 2500 j/kg 4000 j/kg 5890 j/kg 8000 j/kg
8000 m 4.0919892e+21 J 1.0229971e+22 J 1.6367954e+22 J 2.4101809e+22 J 3.2735908e+22 J
11800 m 6.0356831e+21 J 1.5089208e+22 J 2.4142732e+22 J 3.5550172e+22 J 4.8285465e+22 J

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